Understanding your bone mineral density (BMD) test results is crucial when it comes to assessing your bone health. Whether you have recently undergone a BMD test or have been researching bone health, we are here to provide you with valuable insights.


In this article, we will explore the various aspects of BMD testing and T-scores, covering the following topics:

  1. What is a BMD T-score?

  2. Interpreting different T-scores

  3. Measuring the BMD T-score

  4. Factors causing low T-scores

  5. Who should consider T-score measurement?

  6. Can standard X-rays determine the BMD T-score?

  7. Actions to take if you have a low T-score

Let's dive in and demystify these concepts for you.

What is a BMD T-score?

A BMD T-score is a critical indicator of bone health assessed through a BMD test. This non-invasive test measures the mineral content and density of bones, focusing on areas like the hip, spine, and forearms. By comparing your results to the average bone density of a healthy young adult of the same gender, the T-score represents the standard deviation from this average bone density.

Interpreting different T-scores

T-scores classify individuals into three main groups: normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis.


Normal: A T-score between +1 and -1 is considered normal, indicating that your bone density falls within the average range for a young, healthy adult. Even if your T-score falls within this range, it is important to maintain bone health through proper nutrition and regular exercise.


Osteopenia: A T-score between -1 and -2.5 suggests low bone density, indicating a higher risk of developing osteoporosis. Osteopenia serves as a warning sign, signaling the need for preventive measures to improve bone health and reduce the risk of fractures.


Osteoporosis: A T-score below -2.5 confirms the diagnosis of osteoporosis. This indicates significantly reduced bone density, putting you at a higher risk of fractures. It is crucial to seek prompt medical intervention, including medication, lifestyle changes, and fall prevention strategies, to manage and mitigate the impact of osteoporosis.

How is the BMD T-score measured?

Bone Mineral Density (BMD) is commonly measured using specialized imaging techniques, with Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA) being the most widely used method. This technique involves emitting two low-dose X-ray beams of different energy levels toward the spine, hip, or forearm. Detectors on the opposite side of the scanner measure the amount of X-ray energy absorbed by the bones.


The DXA machine calculates the BMD by comparing the difference in X-ray energy absorption between the bone and surrounding soft tissues. This calculation generates the T-score, which compares an individual's BMD to that of a healthy young adult of the same gender, and the Z-score, which compares the BMD to a population of the same age and gender.


BMD results are typically presented as T-scores and Z-scores. The T-score helps classify bone health as normal, osteopenia, or osteoporosis, while the Z-score provides a comparison to the average bone density of a population of the same age and gender. Other techniques such as quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) can also measure BMD using different imaging technologies.

What causes low T-scores?

Several factors can contribute to a lower T-score and affect your bone health. These include age, gender, family history, hormonal imbalances, a sedentary lifestyle, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D.

Who should get their T-scores measured?

Postmenopausal Women

Postmenopausal women are at a higher risk of developing osteoporosis due to hormonal changes that can lead to bone loss. It is generally recommended that women in this category consider a baseline BMD test around menopause or shortly after. Subsequent follow-up tests can be determined based on the initial results and individual risk factors.


Men over 50

While osteoporosis is often associated with women, men can also develop this condition. Men over the age of 50, particularly those with risk factors such as low body weight, family history of osteoporosis, or certain medical conditions, may benefit from discussing BMD testing with their healthcare provider.


Individuals with Risk Factors

Certain risk factors may warrant earlier or more frequent BMD testing. These can include a history of fractures as a result of minimal trauma, long-term use of medications known to affect bone health (such as corticosteroids), certain medical conditions (such as hyperparathyroidism or malabsorption disorders), or a family history of osteoporosis.


Monitoring Treatment

If you have been diagnosed with osteoporosis or osteopenia and are receiving treatment, regular BMD tests can help monitor the effectiveness of the treatment and track changes in bone density over time.

Can standard X-rays tell me my BMD T-score?

No, standard X-rays are not typically used to directly measure bone density or detect low bone density.

Standard X-rays primarily capture images of bones, providing information about bone structure and identifying fractures or deformities. However, they do not offer a quantitative assessment of bone density. X-rays can indirectly suggest decreased bone density by showing signs of osteoporosis-related fractures, such as compression fractures in the spine or fragility fractures in other areas of the body. These fractures may be an indicator of low bone density, but they do not provide a comprehensive assessment of overall bone health.


What to do if you've received a low T-Score:

If your BMD test reveals a T-score indicating osteopenia or osteoporosis, don't lose hope! There are proactive steps you can take to improve your bone health:

Consult with a healthcare professional

Discuss your test results with your doctor, who can provide you with valuable insights, guidance, and a comprehensive treatment plan tailored to your specific needs.

Make lifestyle modifications

Engage in weight-bearing exercises such as walking, jogging, or dancing to strengthen your bones. Ensure a well-balanced diet and avoid smoking while limiting alcohol intake.

Focus on fall prevention

Reduce the risk of falls by ensuring a safe living environment, using assistive devices if necessary, and incorporating balance and strength exercises into your routine.

Explore available treatment options

Consider medications and supplements recommended by your healthcare professional to improve bone density and reduce the risk of fractures.

Marah Natural's SAC Formulation Technology®

Marah Natural offers products like Marah-Cel and Neo-Cel, which can help improve your T-score, prevent low bone density, strengthen bones, and reduce fractures. These products feature the high-absorbing SAC Formulation Technology®, which contains a powerful ionic calcium that efficiently delivers active calcium ions to cells, promoting energy delivery and cell regeneration. SAC® can be absorbed without the need for Vitamin D or peptides.


With the highest purity of SAC®, Marah-Cel optimizes the delivery of oxygen and intracellular calcium, leading to more efficient cell energy and supporting the function and repair of bone cells.


Neo-Cel is designed to deliver calcium ions directly into the bloodstream, stimulating the body's natural response to balance hormones and initiate the formation and repair of bone tissue.


Please note that it is always advisable to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice and information related to bone health and any specific products.

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.